Centrifugal Pumps

Centrifugal pump is a superior industrial pump, which can handle various liquids such as water, oil, and chemicals, including mixtures and solids… Used for all industries: food industry, pharmaceutical, petroleum, daily life, irrigation, fire fighting… many different fields. So do you know what a centrifugal pump is? What components does it include? How does the machine work?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of centrifugal pumps? Let’s find out with Thai Khuong through the article below!

Centrifugal pump
Centrifugal pump

What is a centrifugal pump?

Centrifugal pump is a type of industrial hydraulic vane pump that works by centrifugal force, creating flow through the machine’s impeller. To learn more about the structure and working principle of this type of pump. We continue to follow the content below. We will deal with each of these centrifugal pump problems in turn!

What is an English centrifugal pump?

In English, centrifugal pumps are called Centrifugal pumps. Add a technical vocabulary for those who like to learn more documents in English.

Centrifugal pump construction

Centrifugal pump construction
Centrifugal pump construction

Currently, with the development of technology. Centrifugal pumps have increasingly complex structures to meet many different pumping applications. But basically, centrifugal pump is composed of the following parts: Outside includes:

  • Pump motor
  • Pump chamber Inside there are:
  • Impeller
  • Propeller
  • Pump shaft
  • Entry guide dẫn
  • Output guide unit
  • Suction and ejector tubes Each division has different functions and tasks:
  • Motor: Converts electrical energy into mechanical energy and pulls the pump chamber into action
  • Impeller: Also known as centrifugal pump impeller, cast iron and steel are made based on precision casting method, so it is very hard. The central moving part in the pump chamber is to push the liquid out of the section. They are usually composed of 3 main types:

o Wings fully open,

o Partially open wings

o Closed wings

  • Pump shaft: Made of metal steel, directly linked to the motor shaft. Direct drive to the impeller. Pump shaft and impeller + impeller are held together by bolts, bolts…
  • The inlet guide: The suction port is also connected to the suction pipe to guide the liquid into the pump chamber.
  • Outlet guide: Also known as discharge port, usually has a spiral shape in the direction of rotation of the impeller. Their task is to bring liquid out of the pump chamber.
  • Suction and ejector tubes: Accessories that connect to the guide unit. They are usually made of cast iron, iron, stainless steel, or PVC pipes…

Centrifugal pump impeller

Talking about centrifugal pump impeller is a long story. From the time they were born until now, they have been improved and changed with many different shapes. Initially, they had the following conditions:

  • Closed wings
  • Vortex wings
  • Cutting wings

In addition, they have the following types:

  • Wings roll
  • Floor wings Each type has advantages and disadvantages and is suitable for different uses or environments.

E.g.:

  • Sealed vane is specialized for liquids with low viscosity and no impurities such as clean water, production water,…
  • The blade is specialized for water mixed with solid and fine impurities such as untreated wastewater, river and stream water, … because the edge can cut objects mixed in water…

Working principle of centrifugal pump

The working principle of the centrifugal pump is described in detail as the animation below. They will take place continuously with two processes of attraction and repulsion. First, you notice, the liquid flow is sucked through the Inlet door. Then the impeller will act to make the fluid flow along the spiral pump chamber wall and go out the outlet. But it is important to note that before the machine starts working, the pump body must be primed, and the suction pipe is filled with liquid.

Specifically:

  • Pump suction process: At the entrance of the impeller, there is a vacuum zone. Because the pressure in the reservoir is greater than the pressure at this inlet, the liquid in the suction tank is continuously pushed into the pump from the suction pipe.
  • When the centrifugal pump is in operation, the impeller rotates. The liquids inside the impeller are ejected due to the influence of centrifugal force. The conductive membranes move and enter the ejector tube with high pressure. This process is called pump thrust. At the output guide part, the task is to lead the liquid from the impeller to the ejector tube to be regulated, stabilized, and convert amount of the kinetic energy into the necessary pressure. The pumping and suction process of the pump is carried out continuously, creating a continuous flow.
Working principle of centrifugal pump
Working principle of centrifugal pump

Centrifugal pump characteristic curve

The characteristic curve of a centrifugal pump is understood as a graph of pump operating efficiency. It shows parameters that vary according to different operating conditions such as:

  • Heads
  • Flow

Why is the pump curve in general and centrifugal pump in particular necessary?

Because we can rely on this characteristic curve to choose the type of pump suitable for the system. Through indicators such as flow, efficiency, pressure head from time to time…

On the other hand, based on this characteristic curve, operation engineers can quickly check, maintain and maintain the pump without relying on the periodic schedule. Because there are times when the pump has unexpected problems…

Based on the curve, we can plan the operation according to the environmental conditions or the situation of the system…

Centrifugal pumps

Centrifugal pumps are divided into many different types based on shape and characteristics:

  • According to the shape of the pump chamber: There are spiral pumps, diffusion pumps.
  • By head: There are low pressure, medium pressure, and high-pressure pumps.
  • According to the position of the pump shaft: There are vertical pumps and horizontal pumps.
  • By speed ratio: Low, high, medium speed pump, and cross speed pump.

In practice, we often choose the pump according to the axial position. That is Vertical and horizontal centrifugal pumps. Why? Because they most affect our pipeline diagram or system design drawings.

Vertical shaft centrifugal pump

A vertical shaft centrifugal pump is designed with the motor on the top, good heat dissipation performance. In addition, they limit the risk of leakage or heating of the liquid source through the pump chamber. On the other hand, they solve the problem of location and installation space.

Therefore, it can be said that this is the most chosen machine used in construction projects, domestic pumps for high-rise apartments, irrigation pumps, farming in industrial production because of its ability to push water. Go to the high place.

Some vertical centrifugal pump manufacturers from the EU that you can refer to CAPRARI, SALVATORE ROBUSCHI … have high quality, meet all the strict criteria of many industries in Vietnam. .

Vertical shaft centrifugal pump
Vertical shaft centrifugal pump

Horizontal Centrifugal Pump

Horizontal centrifugal pumps, as their name suggests. This is a line of pumps with a horizontal design, with the same parts as other types of centrifuges.

This centrifugal pump series has the advantage of quiet operation; it has an automatic shutdown mode when it is overheated, ensuring comfort and safety.

The machine is suitable when choosing to use for clean water pump systems, air conditioning systems, cool houses, water supply, and treatment,…

Currently, horizontal axis centrifugal pumps of brands such as CAPRARI, SALVATORE ROBUSCHI, SCHURCO SLURRY… are being used by many customers.

Horizontal Centrifugal Pump
Horizontal Centrifugal Pump

Advantages and disadvantages of centrifugal pumps

Advantages

  • Pumps for a wide range of liquids such as water, chemicals, oils (including liquid and solid mixtures).
  • Compact structure, light, sturdy.
  • Parts of the machine can be installed and disassembled easily.
  • Working in high intensity but still ensuring safety.
  • Large range of uses and high productivity.

Disadvantages

  • Not able to absorb water by itself, so it must be primed to operate.
  • The suction pipe size of the machine is enormous.
  • As pump efficiency decreases, fluid viscosity increases.
  • The number of revolutions is small, so that it will give a low performance.
  • The cost is relatively high.

Centrifugal pump application

Centrifugal pump application
Centrifugal pump application

A centrifugal pump is an optimal and most popular choice for transporting low-viscosity liquids such as freshwater, seawater, etc. This pump can be used in the system. Does not require a high head but needs to have a uniform and large flow, so it is widely applied in the following fields:

  • Used in fire sprinkler systems or for hot water circulation, cooling systems in refrigeration rooms,…
  • Widely used in ship propulsion systems.
  • Widely applied in oil & Energy: in petrochemical refineries, thermal power plants,…
  • Application for wastewater treatment, water supply, drainage, pond pump irrigation, flood prevention, irrigation, agricultural cultivation, etc…
  • Chemical industries such as chemical, paint, pharmaceutical, food and beverage production, and sugar refining. The article has shared with you information about centrifugal pumps that are very popular on the market. Need to refer to specific models; please see more products below!

If you have any questions about products, prices, and purchasing policies at Thai Khuong, please contact us quickly at hotline: 0941.400.488 for quick answers.

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